UML to RDF/OWL (based on ISO/IS 19150-2)

Contents

Overview

(NOTE: this target is available since ShapeChange version 2.2.0. The execution of this target requires Java 8 or higher (tested with Java 8).)

ISO/IS 19150-2 defines rules for mapping ISO geographic information UML models to OWL ontologies. This target derives an ontology representation from an application schema in UML based upon these rules.

NOTE: A number of configuration options and extensions have been implemented. They are documented in detail in the OGC Testbed 12 ShapeChange Engineering Report (OGC document number 16-020, to be published). The report also documents which model transformations may need to be applied before executing this target, for example to transform association classes. Therefore, if you are looking for a complete introduction of the conversion from UML to RDF/OWL/SKOS, read the according chapter in the OGC Engineering Report first. This page provides a quick reference of the available conversion rules, parameters, and configuration elements.

Configuration

Class

The class for the Target implementation is de.interactive_instruments.ShapeChange.Target.Ontology.OWLISO19150.

Conversion Rules

The behavior for processing a model is primarily controlled through conversion rules. In addition, parameters and other configuration elements (like map entries) influence the way a schema is processed. An encoding rule represents a specific set of conversion rules.

An encoding rule is defined by an <EncodingRule> element.

Example:

<EncodingRule name="myencodingrule>
 <rule name="rule-owl-pkg-singleOntologyPerSchema"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-code"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-pkg-versionInfo"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-pkg-versionIRI"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-cls-generalization"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-cls-encode-featuretypes"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-cls-encode-objecttypes"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-cls-encode-datatypes"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-prop-general"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-prop-range-global"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-prop-localScopeAll"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-prop-multiplicityAsUnqualifiedCardinalityRestriction"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-prop-inverseOf"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-cls-union"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-cls-unionSets"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-cls-iso191502Enumeration"/>
 <rule name="rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2"/> 
</EncodingRule>

The name attribute of the <EncodingRule> element defines the identifier of the encoding rule to be used in the defaultEncodingRule parameter.

The optional extends attribute of the <EncodingRule> element includes all rules from the referenced encoding rule in this encoding rule, too.

Each <rule> references either a conversion rule or – possibly in the future – a requirement or recommendation to be tested before the conversion process.

This target supports the rules defined in the following subsections.

rule-owl-all-constraints-byConstraintMapping

If this conversion rule is enabled, then constraints on UML classes and properties are converted to an RDF property, as specified via the constraintMappings configuration.

If no constraint mapping is defined for a specific constraint type (text, OCL, SBVR) then the following mapping is used:

  • constraintType: applies to each of the supported constraint types
  • target: “iso19150-2:constraint”
  • template: “[[name]]: [[text]]”
  • noValue: “”
  • multiValueConnectorToken: “”
  • format: “string”

rule-owl-all-constraints-humanReadableTextOnly

If this rule is enabled then only the human readable text of a constraint is encoded. This means:

  • For ShapeChange text constraints as well as constraints parsed from SBVR, the complete text is encoded.
  • For ShapeChange OCL constraints, the values of the comment property are encoded (multiple comments are concatenated using a single space character as separator).
  • In both cases, the constraint name is prepended to the text.

rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2

If this rule is enabled then <<codeList>> UML classes are converted as defined by ISO/IS 19150-2 (section 6.7.2) – except for the SKOS collection (for which a separate conversion rule is defined).

rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2-conceptSchemeSubclass

This rule is an extension of the behavior defined by ISO/IS 19150-2 for the conversion of code lists.

If the rule is enabled, then another OWL class representing the code list is created. It is a subclass of skos:ConceptScheme. If the tagged value skosConceptSchemeSubclassName is provided for the code list, then it is used as the name for this class. Otherwise, its name is the name of the code list (potentially augmented via parameter skosConceptSchemeSubclassSuffix). The named individual that would otherwise be created per ISO 19150-2 as a type of skos:ConceptScheme will then be created using the subclass of skos:ConceptScheme as type. This additional subclass can be useful in case there is a need to differentiate between different kinds of concept schemes.

rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2-differentIndividuals

If this rule is enabled, then an individual inequality axiom is defined for the named individuals that represent the codes of a code list that is converted under rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2. This axiom ensures that a reasoner will never consider these individuals as equal. Without this axiom, a reasoner can treat individuals as equal because the semantics of OWL 2 does not make the unique name assumption — that is, it does not assume distinct individuals to be necessarily different.

rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2-objectOneOfForEnumeration

If this rule is enabled, and the code list (that is converted under rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2) actually is an <<enumeration>> that is treated like a code list under rule-owl-cls-enumerationAsCodelist, then an OWL ObjectOneOf class expression is defined for the OWL class representing the code list. The expression enumerates the named individuals representing the code values and thus expresses the semantics of the enumeration as a closed list, in a standard way.

rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2-owlClassInDifferentNamespace

If this rule is enabled, then the OWL class that is derived from the code list (under rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2) is assigned to an RDF namespace defined by the configuration parameter codeListOwlClassNamespace. Otherwise the OWL class will be assigned to the application schema namespace, as in ISO 19150-2.

  • If the namespace of the application schema ontology can change between subsequent versions of the ontology, we recommend moving the OWL class representing the code list to a namespace that is different from the application schema ontology namespace. This is explained in more detail in the OGC Testbed 12 ShapeChange Engineering Report (to be published).
  • The codeListOwlClassNamespaceForEnumerations configuration parameter can be used to set a specific namespace URI for the OWL class derived from enumerations when encoding them like codelists under rule-owl-cls-enumerationAsCodelist.

 

rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2-skos-collection

If this rule is enabled together with rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2, then a SKOS collection is created for a code list.

NOTE: Omitting the SKOS collection may be desirable for a community, because all concepts belonging to a particular scheme can be identified using their skos:inScheme relations. SKOS collections are primarily useful for grouping concepts – especially a subset of the concepts in a concept scheme – under a common label.

 

rule-owl-cls-codelist-external

If this conversion rule is enabled, then a code list that has the vocabulary or codeList tagged value is not represented as part of the OWL ontology derived from the application schema.

Background: Communities often already manage their code lists outside of the application schema, SKOS being a prominent encoding. In such a case, <<codeList>> UML classes are contained in the application schema without declaring any specific code values. These classes serve as stubs. They can be used as value types for properties. In addition, they can – and should – provide links to the resource that represents the code list using a tagged value.

rule-owl-cls-disjoint-classes

If this rule is enabled, then an OWL disjoint classes axiom is created for each case where a supertype has more than one subtype. The axiom contains a collection of the direct subtypes of the supertype, thus ensuring that they are mutually disjoint.

rule-owl-cls-encode-basictypes

ShapeChange supports the notion of basic type. They are primarily used by the XML Schema target. However, if that target is contained in the ShapeChange configuration, it has implications on how UML types are loaded. In this case, it may lead to UML types being loaded as basic types. A UML type is loaded as a basic type if:

  • rule-xsd-cls-basictype is contained in the XSD encoding rule, and:
    • the UML type has the stereotype <<BasicType>>, or
    • the UML type is an object type, mixin type, or data type and has a supertype that is identified as a basic type through an XSD map entry (which does not have its xmlTypeType and xmlTypeContent attributes both set to ‘complex’ – either explicitly or by using the default values, which is ‘complex’ for both attributes).

For the ontology conversion rules, a basic type is usually treated as any other type. If UML types are loaded by ShapeChange as basic types, include rule-owl-cls-encode-basictypes to convert them to OWL classes.

NOTE: Omitting this encoding rule can be useful when creating a taxonomy of particular UML types.

rule-owl-cls-encode-datatypes

If this rule is enabled, data types will be converted to OWL classes.

NOTE: Omitting this encoding rule can be useful when creating a taxonomy of particular UML types.

rule-owl-cls-encode-featuretypes

If this rule is enabled, feature types will be converted to OWL classes.

NOTE: Omitting this encoding rule can be useful when creating a taxonomy of particular UML types.

rule-owl-cls-encode-mixintypes

ShapeChange supports the notion of mixin type (for further details, see http://shapechange.net/targets/xsd/extensions/mixin/). They are primarily used by the XML Schema target. However, if that target is contained in the ShapeChange configuration, it has implications on how UML types are loaded. In this case, it may lead to UML types being loaded as mixin types. A UML type is loaded as a mixin type if:

  • rule-xsd-cls-mixin-classes is contained in the XSD encoding rule and:
    • the tagged value gmlMixin is set to true, or
    • the type has the stereotype <<type>>, is abstract, and the tagged value gmlMixin is not set to false.

For the ontology conversion rules, a mixin type is usually treated as any other object type. If UML types are loaded by ShapeChange as mixin types, include rule-owl-cls-encode-mixintypes to convert them to OWL classes.

NOTE: Omitting this encoding rule can be useful when creating a taxonomy of particular UML types.

rule-owl-cls-encode-objecttypes

ShapeChange treats UML types without stereotype as plain objects with identity, called object types. UML types with stereotype <<type>> are usually also treated this way.

If this rule is enabled, object types will be converted to OWL classes.

NOTE: Omitting this encoding rule can be useful when creating a taxonomy of particular UML types.

rule-owl-cls-enumerationAsCodelist

This rule takes into account that the conceptual difference between enumerations and code lists is rather small. An enumeration is considered to be a complete list of codes, while a code list is extensible. Both contain lists of acceptable values to be used with properties, typically as strings of natural language or mnemonic abbreviations. Optionally (and preferably) both kinds of elements are provided with definitions.
Due to their dynamic nature, code lists are now often encoded using SKOS and managed separately from the application schema. SKOS representation can be applied to enumerations as well. If rule-owl-cls-enumerationAsCodelist is enabled, then the conversion to RDF treats enumerations as code lists.

Note
That means that tagged values vocabulary and codeList can be relevant on enumerations. If rule-owl-cls-enumerationAsCodelist and rule-owl-cls-codelist-external are enabled and an enumeration has the tagged value vocabulary or codeList, then the enumeration will be treated as externally managed. It will not be converted to an OWL class and SKOS individuals; instead, the OWL representation of UML properties that have the enumeration as value type will reference the external representation of the enumeration.

Treating enumerations as code lists may also be desirable for the following reasons:

  • The representation of enumerations as string values (within an owl:oneOf declaration as specified by ISO 19150-2) does not allow for providing definitions of the enumerants within the ontology.
  • The approach in ISO 19150-2 makes the representation of enumerations very different from the representation of code lists, even though conceptually the two are similar except for enumerations being supposed to be a complete, closed coverage of the value space.
  • Applications that are designed to utilize controlled vocabularies in SKOS – for example for tagging and indexing – cannot make use of enumerations represented as defined by ISO 19150-2.
  • In the RDF/XML serialization of owl:oneOf, the rdf:List structure, with its LISP-like nesting, is unwieldy.

rule-owl-cls-generalization

If this rule is enabled, then a generalization relationship between a class in the schema and another class is implemented as an rdfs:subClassOf declaration.

rule-owl-cls-iso191502Enumeration

This rule implements the conversion of enumerations as defined by ISO 19150-2.

The enumeration corresponds to an RDFS datatype that specifies the restricted list of literals using an owl:oneOf declaration.

rule-owl-cls-iso191502IsAbstract

If this rule is enabled, then the owl:Class representation of an abstract class from the schema receives the annotation property iso19150-2:isAbstract with value set to true.

rule-owl-cls-union

This rule converts <<union>> types , preserving their semantics.

The approach is based on a logical combination of unqualified cardinality constraints. The according class expression ensures that values are given for only one of the properties in the union.

More specifically, the class expression is created as follows:

  • For each property P in the union:
    • Create a set of unqualified cardinality restrictions, to express the multiplicity of P (for example by restricting the minimum cardinality of P to 1), and that the cardinality of the other properties is restricted to 0.
      • NOTE: if multiplicity is not encoded (neither rule-owl-prop-multiplicityAsQualifiedCardinalityRestriction nor rule-owl-prop-multiplicityAsUnqualifiedCardinalityRestriction is part of the encoding rule) then the minimum cardinality of P would explicitly be set to zero, so that the combination of cardinality restrictions covers the other properties as well as P.
    • Combine the cardinality restrictions within an intersection class expression. The meaning of this expression is that if a value is given for P, then no values may be provided for the other new properties.
  • Combine the intersection class expressions within a single union class expression. This essentially represents the meaning of the <<union>>: if a value is given for one of the options, then there must not be values for the other options.

The class expression is added to the OWL class representation of the union. It ensures that values exist only for one of the union properties, with the number of values constrained as defined by the multiplicity of that property in the UML model.

Each union property is converted to an OWL property according to the general rules defined for properties. This ensures that the value type of the property can be represented properly.

NOTE: An encoding rule may omit rules to convert multiplicity. In that case, the multiplicity defined by the UML model is not specified by cardinality restrictions in the resulting ontology. Nevertheless, to model the semantics of a union in OWL, a class expression as described above would still be used – just with owl:minCardinality 0 as cardinality restriction for the applicable union property.

For further details, see the OGC Testbed 12 ShapeChange Engineering Report (to be published).

rule-owl-cls-unionSets

This rule uses information in tagged values to create class expressions that represent the union semantics.

The information is typically created by model transformations, either rule-trf-prop-flatten-types or rule-trf-cls-replace-with-union-properties (in both cases, the parameter includeUnionIdentifierTaggedValue must be set to ‘true’).

rule-owl-pkg-dctSourceTitle

If this rule is enabled, then the conversion of a UML package into an ontology also adds information about the title of the specification or standard that is the source of the ontology definitions, using a dct:source element as described by ISO 19150-2.

The value of this element is computed as follows:

  • If the configuration parameter sourceTaggedValueName is set and the package has this tagged value, its value is used.
  • Otherwise, if the configuration parameter source is set, then its value is used.
  • Otherwise the value “FIXME” is used (obviously, this requires manual adjustment after the ontology has been created by ShapeChange).

rule-owl-pkg-importISO191502Base

If this rule is enabled, then each ontology imports the base ontology defined by ISO 19150-2 with IRI http://def.isotc211.org/iso19150-2/2012/base#

rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-appendVersion

If this rule is enabled, and the ‘version’ tagged value of the application schema package contains a non-empty string, then the version is appended to the ontology name with separator “/”.

NOTE: Although including a version number in the ontology name is not common practice, it can be useful to better enforce use of a particular version of an ontology within a community.

rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-byTaggedValue

If this rule is enabled and a tagged value – identified by the configuration parameter ontologyNameTaggedValue is set for the package its value is used to construct the ontologyName.

  • This option is useful if ontologies shall be derived from multiple schemas, and each shall have a specific ontology name that is defined in the UML model.

rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-code

If rule-owl-pkg-singleOntologyPerSchema and rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-code are both in effect, the ontologyName is constructed as follows: a code value is appended to a base URI with “/” as separator.

NOTE: The base URI is determined as follows: if the configuration parameter URIbase is set, then its value is used – otherwise the targetNamespace of the package provides the value of the base URI.

The code value is determined by first looking at the configuration parameter ontologyNameCode. If it exists, its value is used. Otherwise, the abbreviation defined for an application schema package – via the tagged value xmlns on the application schema package – is used for constructing the ontology name. If neither the configuration parameter nor the tagged value exist or contain a non-empty string, then “FIXME” will be used as code value.

NOTE: The name of the file in which the ontology is stored will then also be constructed using the code – instead of the package name (which would be normalized according to ISO 19150-2).

NOTE: This conversion rule can be useful if a community uses specific codes to identify its schemas.

rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-iso191502

If this rule is enabled, then the ontology name is the normalized package name appended to a base URI (with “/” as separator).

NOTE: The base URI is determined as follows: if the configuration parameter URIbase is set, then its value is used – otherwise the targetNamespace of the package provides the value of the base URI.

rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-withPath

If this rule is enabled then the umlPackageName (that is appended to a base URI with “/” as separator) is constructed using the path of the package to the upmost owner that is in the same target namespace – using a combination of “/” and normalized package names for all parent packages in the same target namespace.

  • This option is useful if child packages of a schema shall be converted to ontologies with different names, and the package names are suitable to construct the ontology name.

NOTE: The base URI is determined as follows: if the configuration parameter URIbase is set, then its value is used – otherwise the targetNamespace of the package provides the value of the base URI.

rule-owl-pkg-singleOntologyPerSchema

If this rule is enabled, then one ontology namespace will be created for the selected schema and its child packages.

NOTE: The content of a UML package, i.e. UML classes and their properties, will be converted to OWL depending upon the conversion rules that have been configured.

rule-owl-pkg-versionInfo

If this rule is enabled and a package that is converted into an ontology has version information, then the information is encoded in an owl:versionInfo element.

NOTE: ShapeChange looks up the version of a package either directly in the configuration (more specifically: in PackageInfo elements) or in the tagged value “version” of the package. If no version information is found there, the version of the parent package is checked. If the parent package has version information, it is used for the child package. Because of this, <<leaf>> packages of an application schema usually have the same version as the application schema. This can be useful if ontologies are created for all packages within a given application schema.

rule-owl-pkg-versionIRI

If this rule is enabled and a package that is converted into an ontology has version information, then the versionIRI of the ontology is constructed as follows:

ontologyName "/" version

NOTE: ShapeChange looks up the version of a package either directly in the configuration (more specifically: in PackageInfo elements) or in the tagged value “version” of the package. If no version information is found there, the version of the parent package is checked. If the parent package has version information, it is used for the child package. Because of this, <<leaf>> packages of an application schema usually have the same version as the application schema. This can be useful if ontologies are created for all packages within a given application schema.

rule-owl-pkg-versionIRI-avoid-duplicate-version

If rule-owl-pkg-versionIRI and rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-appendVersion are both enabled, and the package has version information, then the version would be duplicated in the versionIRI. To avoid this, enable rule-owl-pkg-versionIRI-avoid-duplicate-version.

rule-owl-prop-code-broader-byBroaderListedValue

If this rule is enabled, then skos:broader relationships are established for code values as follows:

  • If a code – e.g. “longTermAccommodation” – has the tag “broaderListedValue” and it contains the name of another code – e.g. “accommodation” – from the same code list, then the following triple is added to the ontology:
    • “longTermAccommodation” skos:broader “accommodation”.
  • If a code does not have a value for the tag “broaderListedValue” then a skos:topConceptOf relationship is added to the SKOS concept that represents the code, referencing the SKOS concept scheme that the concept is skos:inScheme of.
  • If the value of the tag “broaderListedValue” does not match any code in the code list, then ShapeChange logs a warning and treats it as a top concept.

rule-owl-prop-external-reference

(available since: after v2.3.0 – WIP)

When a UML property is converted to an OWL property, and the value type of the UML property has tagged values “codeList” or “vocabulary”, then for each of these tagged values this rule will add a predicate to the OWL property that references the URI provided by the tagged value. The predicate is identified via the configuration parameter propExternalReference_targetProperty.

Typically, code lists use the tagged values “codeList” and “vocabulary” to point to a resource with further information about the code list. This can be, for example, a registry entry – where both HTML and RDF representations of the resource are available.

This conversion rule is useful if no specific class is available to represent a code list. That can be the case if the code list is not encoded and the external encoding only uses generic types (such as skos:Concept(Scheme)). Consequently, the range of the OWL property can only specify a general class, such as skos:Concept. The predicate that is added by this rule at least provides a hint for implementers to determine which values should be used, using information that is contained in the conceptual model (by the tagged values “codeList” and “vocabulary”).

Example:

ex:property
        a                 owl:ObjectProperty ;
        rdfs:range        skos:Concept ;
        rdfs:seeAlso      <http://example.org/codelist> .

rule-owl-prop-general

The conversion of UML properties (attributes and navigable association roles) into OWL properties is enabled or disabled by respectively including or excluding rule-owl-prop-general in the encoding rule.

However, this rule does not apply to UML properties of <<codeList>> and <<enumeration>> types, because the rules defined to convert those types specify if and how their properties – i.e., listed values – are converted.

NOTE: Being able to “switch off” property conversion is useful for example when deriving a taxonomy instead of a complete ontology from the application schema.

rule-owl-prop-globalScopeAttributes

Some communities specify most (if not all) schema concepts within a dictionary. In addition to concepts for classes, the dictionary also contains concepts for each attribute that occurs within the schema. A specific class concept in the application schema uses a particular set of common attribute concepts defined in the dictionary. Given such a framework, all UML attributes can be encoded as globally scoped OWL properties. This behavior will be executed if rule-owl-prop-globalScopeAttributes is enabled.

rule-owl-prop-globalScopeByConversionParameter

If this rule is enabled, then PropertyConversionParameters contained in the OWL target of the ShapeChange configuration file specify which properties from the conceptual schema in UML shall be represented as global OWL properties.

rule-owl-prop-globalScopeByUniquePropertyName

If this rule is enabled, then ShapeChange will determine if the name of a UML property from the application schema is going to be unique within the ontology into which its OWL property representation will be placed. If it is unique, then the property will be converted to a globally scoped property.

rule-owl-prop-inverseOf

If the association to which an association role belongs is bi-directional and rule-owl-prop-inverseOf is enabled, then an owl:inverseOf predicate is added to the OWL property representing the association role, with the IRI of the inverse property as value.

rule-owl-prop-iso191502Aggregation

If an association role is playing the part role in a shared or composite aggregation, and rule-owl-prop-iso191502Aggregation is enabled, then an iso19150-2:aggregationType annotation is added to the OWL property representing the association role, with value “partOfSharedAggregation” or “partOfCompositeAggregation” – depending upon the given type of aggregation.

rule-owl-prop-iso191502AssociationName

If the association to which an association role belongs has a name and rule-owl-prop-iso191502AssociationName is enabled, then an iso19150-2:associationName annotation is added to the OWL property representing the association role, with the association name as value.

rule-owl-prop-iso191502-naming

If this rule is enabled, properties are named as defined by ISO 19150-2.

The OWL property name is a combination of the RDF namespace of the ontology, the UML class name (conditional), and the UML property name:

propertyName = rdfNamespace [umlClassName "."] propertyLocalName
propertyLocalName = umlAttributeName / umlRoleName

The property local name is given in lower camel case. Punctuation characters other than dash and underscore are replaced by underscore characters. Space characters are removed.

The UML class name is included if the property is not converted to a globally scoped property.

NOTE: At the moment, rule-owl-prop-iso191502-naming is the default for creating the name of an OWL property. Additional rules can be added in the future to implement alternative naming conventions.

rule-owl-prop-localScopeAll

In UML, an attribute belongs to the class that defines it. Likewise, an association role is a property that belongs to a specific class. In RDF, a property can be described in terms of the class to which it applies (as its domain), but it can also be described independently of any class.

Apparently there is a mismatch between UML and RDF: in UML, a property belongs to its class, while in RDF, a property can be used by multiple classes. In other words: in UML, a property is always scoped to a specific class, while in RDF the scope of properties can be global.NOTE: A property domain axiom is defined for an RDF property with local scope. No such axiom is defined for an RDF property with global scope, allowing it to be used by multiple classes.A straightforward solution for converting UML properties would be to convert each UML property to a uniquely corresponding OWL property, relating it to a specific class by:

  1. adding the class name that the property belongs to in UML to the OWL property name (so that the OWL property declaration is unique in the ontology), and
  2. declaring the OWL representation of its owning UML class as the domain of the OWL property.

This approach is covered by the conversion rule rule-owl-prop-localScopeAll.

rule-owl-prop-mapping-compare-specifications

If a property is mapped to a global one, ShapeChange can compare the range, definition, description, and alias of the two properties. This can be useful to identify potential inconsistencies that may be introduced through the mapping. A warning will be logged for each potential inconsistency. This comparison is implemented in rule-owl-prop-mapping-compare-specifications.

rule-owl-prop-multiplicityAsQualifiedCardinalityRestriction

If this rule is enabled, then the multiplicity of a UML property is encoded with a qualified cardinality restriction.

rule-owl-prop-multiplicityAsUnqualifiedCardinalityRestriction

If this rule is enabled, then the multiplicity of a UML property is encoded with an unqualified cardinality restriction.

rule-owl-prop-range-global

If this rule is enabled, then an OWL range axiom (Object-/DataPropertyRange) is defined for the OWL property that represents the UML property.

rule-owl-prop-range-local-withUniversalQuantification

If this rule is enabled, then OWL universal quantifications are included in the ontology, to restrict the range of a property only within the scope of those OWL classes which represent UML classes that own the property.

rule-owl-prop-voidable-as-minCardinality0

If this rule is enabled and a property is voidable, then its multiplicity is encoded with lower bound 0.

Rule execution priority and dependencies

Some of the conversion rules supported by this target address the same conversion aspects. When conflicting conversion rules are included in the encoding rule, ShapeChange usually only executes one of them. This section documents the execution priorities and dependencies of rules that address the same conversion aspects.

Ontology Name

The conversion rules to determine the ontology name are executed with the following priority:

  1. rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-byTaggedValue
  2. rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-code (only in combination with rule-owl-pkg-singleOntologyPerSchema)
  3. rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-withPath
  4. rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-iso191502

If none of these rules is enabled, ShapeChange will log a warning and use rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-iso191502 as fallback.

Appending a version to the ontology name is an additional processing step. Therefore, rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-appendVersion is independent of the other rules.

Unions

The conversion rules for unions – rule-owl-cls-union and rule-owl-cls-unionSets – are independent of each other.

If none of these rules is enabled, unions and union semantics will not be encoded. The range of properties with a union as value type will then be set to the value of the ShapeChange configuration parameter defaultTypeImplementation.

Enumerations

The conversion rules for enumerations are mutually exclusive.

If both rule-owl-cls-enumerationAsCodelist and rule-owl-cls-iso191502Enumeration are enabled, ShapeChange will log a warning and continue processing as if only rule-owl-cls-iso191502Enumeration was enabled.

If none of these rules is enabled, enumerations will not be encoded. The range of properties with an enumeration as value type will then be set to the value of the ShapeChange configuration parameter defaultTypeImplementation.

Code lists

The conversion rules for code lists are executed with the following priority:

  1. rule-owl-cls-codelist-external
  2. rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2

The following conversion rule(s) can be used with this rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2:

Additional rules may be added in the future.

NOTE:

Because the rules are not mutually exclusive, they can be combined in an encoding rule. An application schema can therefore have code lists that are used as stubs (to reference an external resource representing the code list), as well as code lists that contain actual codes. This can be useful when:

  • The application schema contains some code lists that are managed by other organisations. These code lists would only be referenced in the application schema, using rule-owl-cls-codelist-external to encode them.
  • The application schema also contains code lists with actual codes, for which an encoding (to OWL and SKOS) is not available yet and thus shall automatically be derived by ShapeChange, for example using rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2.
    • Once the encoding is available, the <<codeList>> UML classes can be transformed into stubs to reference the externally managed encoding. This approach supports the transition to an application schema where all code lists used by the schema are managed externally. In this case, it is recommended that rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2-owlClassInDifferentNamespace be used during the initial conversion of the code list.

Scope of OWL Properties

The conversion rules to determine the scope of OWL properties are executed with the following priority:

Additional rules may be added in the future.

Constraint

The conversion rules for constraints are mutually exclusive. If both rules rule-owl-all-constraints-byConstraintMapping and rule-owl-all-constraints-humanReadableTextOnly are enabled, ShapeChange will log a warning and continue processing as if only rule-owl-all-constraints-humanReadableTextOnly was enabled. If none of these rules is enabled, constraints will not be encoded.

Parameters

This target supports the parameters defined in the following subsections.

codeListOwlClassNamespace

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

Defines the RDF namespace for an OWL class that is derived from a code list according to ISO 19150-2.

Applies to Rule(s)

codeListOwlClassNamespaceForEnumerations

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

Defines a specific namespace URI for OWL classes derived from enumerations when encoding them like code lists.

Applies to Rule(s)

codeNamespace

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

Set this parameter to a specific URI to override the rules from ISO 19150-2 (section 6.2.7, table 8) for constructing the codeNamespace. This is useful if the code namespace chosen by a community does not match the structure defined by ISO 19150-2.

Applies to Rule(s)

codeNamespaceForEnumerations

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

Set this parameter to a specific URI to override the rules from ISO 19150-2 (section 6.2.7, table 8) for constructing the codeNamespace for enumerations encoded as code lists. This is useful if the code namespace chosen by a community does not match the structure defined by ISO 19150-2.

Applies to Rule(s)

defaultEncodingRule

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

The identifier of the default encoding rule governing the conversion into the ontology representation. This default value may be overridden by tagged values set on individual modeling elements.

Applies to Rule(s)

none – this is a common target parameter

defaultTypeImplementation

Type: String (structured as a QName)

Default Value: “owl:Class”

Explanation

QName identifying the resource to use as default implementation for schema types. The schema type – a class of the application schema or the value type of a property – is not encoded and no RdfTypeMapEntry identifying a more specific implementation is defined for it.

Situations where this can occur include:

  • A type from the application schema is the value type of a property that shall be encoded, but the encoding rule does not contain a conversion rule to process this type.
  • A code list is encoded under rule-owl-cls-codelist-external

Applies to Rule(s)

none – this is a common target parameter

language

Type: String

Default Value: “en”

Explanation

The language code to be used for generating the ontology representation.

Applies to Rule(s)

none – this is a common target parameter

ontologyNameCode

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

Defines the code value that is appended to a base URI to construct the ontologyName (see ISO/IS 19150-2, section 6.2.2 – Ontology name).

NOTE: The code value is determined by first looking at this configuration parameter. If it exists, its value is used. Otherwise, the abbreviation defined for an application schema package – via the tagged value xmlns on the application schema package – is used for constructing the ontology name. If neither the configuration parameter nor the tagged value exist or contain a non-empty string, then “FIXME” will be used as code value.

Applies to Rule(s)

ontologyNameTaggedValue

Type: String

Default Value: “ontologyName”

Explanation

Name of the tagged value which, if present on a package, defines the ontologyName of the package (see ISO/IS 19150-2, section 6.2.2 – Ontology name).

Applies to Rule(s)

outputDirectory

Type: String

Default Value: <the current run directory>

Explanation

The path to which the ontology file(s) will be written.

Applies to Rule(s)

none – this is a common target parameter

outputFormat

Type: String

Default Value: “Turtle”

Explanation

The format in which an ontology will be stored.

Allowed values are (case is ignored by ShapeChange):

  • Turtle
  • NTriples
  • RDFXML
  • JSONLD
  • RDFJSON
  • TriG
  • NQuads
  • TriX
  • RDFThrift

NOTE: The implementation of this target leverages the Apache Jena API. Therefore, for further details on the supported formats, see the documentation of the RIOT (RDF I/O technology) output capabilities of Apache Jena.

Applies to Rule(s)

none – this is a common target parameter

propExternalReference_targetProperty

(available since: after v2.3.0 – WIP)

Type: String (structured as a QName)

Default Value: “rdfs:seeAlso”

Explanation

Provide a QName that identifies an RDF(S) or OWL property to use for encoding an external reference in rule-owl-prop-external-reference. The reference is defined by tagged values ‘codeList’ and ‘vocabulary’ on the value type of a UML property. The reference value will be encoded as IRI, the range of the chosen RDF(S)/OWL property should support this.

Applies to Rule(s)

rdfNamespaceSeparator

Type: String

Default Value: “#”

Explanation

Defines the character to append to the ontologyName to creat the rdfNamespace of an ontology.

Applies to Rule(s)

none – this is a common target parameter

skosConceptSchemeSubclassSuffix

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

Defines a string to use as suffix for the name of the OWL class that is a subclass of SKOS ConceptScheme.

Applies to Rule(s)

skosConceptSchemeSuffix

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

Defines a string to use as suffix to augment the name of the SKOS concept scheme individual that is created under rule-owl-cls-codelist-19150-2.

Applies to Rule(s)

sortedOutput

Type: String

Default Value: “false”

Explanation

If “false”, the types in a schema will be processed in random order.

If “true”, the types will be processed alphabetically.

If “taggedValue=<tag>”, the types will be processed in the order of the values of the tagged value with name “<tag>”.

Applies to Rule(s)

none – this is a common target parameter

source

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

Parameter relevant to identify the value for the dc:source that qualifies an ontology element. That value is computed according to the following instructions, in descending order:

  • if the target parameter sourceTaggedValueName is set and the model element has the according tagged value, its value is used
  • if this target parameter (source) is set then its value is used
  • otherwise “FIXME” is used

Applies to Rule(s)

sourceTaggedValueName

Type: String

Default Value: none

Explanation

Name of the tagged value relevant to identify the value for the dc:source that qualifies an ontology element. That value is computed according to the following instructions, in descending order:

  • if this target parameter (sourceTaggedValueName) is set and the model element has the according tagged value, its value is used
  • if the target parameter source is set then its value is used
  • otherwise “FIXME” is used

Applies to Rule(s)

URIbase

Type: URI

Default Value: none

Explanation

Defines the global base URI for construction of the ontologyName.

Applies to Rule(s)

Descriptor Targets

The documentation of UML packages, classes, properties and associations includes the following pieces of generic descriptive information, called descriptors:

Descriptor Name
(& ID)
Explanation

Name
(name)

The name of the model element (as named in the source UML, i.e. using upper and lower camel case).

Alias
(alias)

An alternative, human-readable name for the model element.

Definition
(definition)

The normative specification of the model element.

Description
(description)

Additional information about the model element.

Example(s)
(example)

Example(s) illustrating the model element.

Legal basis
(legalBasis)

The legal basis for the model element.
NOTE: This descriptor is optional. For some communities, this information is needed in model documentation generated by ShapeChange.

Data capture statement(s)
(dataCaptureStatement)

Statement(s) describing how to capture instances of this model element from the real world.

Primary code
(primaryCode)

The primary code for this model element.
NOTE: The main code for a model element should be assigned to this descriptor. The primary code may be the only one. Optional additional tagged values may be added for other codes.

NOTE: The descriptor ID is used in templates of descriptor targets – see next table.

Typically, a community has a preferred way to model and encode this information. For example, one community may want to encode the definition of a model element in a skos:definition property, while another prefers to encode it as part of an rdfs:comment property. Yet another community may want to do both. ShapeChange can support this type of diversity through descriptor targets, which are part of the configuration. A descriptor target specifies how the content of a specific RDF property (that shall be generated while converting a model element) is constructed from descriptors. It uses a template to do so. The descriptor target also takes into account that a model element may not have an actual value for each descriptor, and that some descriptors can have multiple values.

In addition to the well-known descriptors (see previous list), additional descriptive information can be incorporated through tagged values. For example, a”name” tagged value on classes could be used to create skos:prefLabel declarations.

The following table documents the structure of a descriptor target. An example is also provided below the table.

Information Item (configured via XML attribute) Datatype & Structure Required / Optional Default Value Description

appliesTo

one of “ontology”, “class”, “conceptscheme”, “property”, “all”

Optional

“all”

Identifies the type of ontology element to which the DescriptorTarget applies. A value of “all” means that the descriptor applies to an ontology, class, conceptschema, and property.

target

string; the syntax shall follow QNames, with the prefix being equal to the namespace abbreviation of a namespace that is contained in the configuration of the ShapeChange ontology target

Required

not applicable

IRI of an RDF property that will be added with the resource representing the model element as subject. The value is determined by the template attribute, with the value format being defined by the format attribute.

template

string

Required

not applicable

Text template where an occurrence of the field “[[descriptor-ID]]” is replaced with the value(s) of that descriptor. The IDs of supported descriptors are listed in the previous table.

An occurrence of the field “[[TV:name]]” is replaced with the value(s) of the tag with the given name.

A tagged value can also be split into multiple strings. In that case, use a field “[[TV(separator):name]]”. The tagged value will be split around matches of the given separator (which is treated as a literal).

NOTE: You can add a CDATA wrapper to the template like this: template=”&lt;![CDATA[_your_actual_template_string_]]&gt;”

format

enum: string, langString, or IRI

Optional

langString

Defines the format of the property value:

  • langString: language tagged string; the configuration parameter language provides the value of the language tag
  • string: string without language tag
  • IRI: the value is the IRI of a resource

noValueBehavior

enum: ignore or populateOnce

Optional

ignore

Determines the behavior in case that no value is available for any of the fields contained in the template:

  • ignore: No target property is created.
  • populateOnce: A single target property is created, with the noValueText being used for all fields.

noValueText

string

Optional

the empty string

If a descriptor used in a template has no value, then this information item provides the text to use instead (e.g. “N/A” or “FIXME”).

multiValue Behavior

enum: either connectInSingleTarget or splitToMultipleTargets

Optional

connectInSingleTarget

Specifies the behavior how descriptors with multiple values shall be encoded:

  • connectInSingleTarget: Multiple values of a descriptor contained in the template are combined in a single target property value, using the multiValueConnectorToken to combine them.
  • splitToMultipleTargets: Multiple values for one or more descriptors result in multiple target properties, one for each value-combination of multi-valued descriptors (resulting in a permutation of the values of each descriptor contained in the template).

multiValue ConnectorToken

string

Optional

a single space character

If a descriptor used in a template has multiple values, and the multiValueBehavior of the descriptor target is set to connectInSingleTarget, then the values are concatenated to a single string value using this token as connector between two values.

Example:

<descriptorTargets>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="ontology" target="rdfs:label" template="[[TV:taxonomyName]]" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="ontology" target="skos:definition"
  template="&lt;![CDATA[Definition: [[TV:taxonomyDefinition]]  Description: [[TV:taxonomyDescription]]]]&gt;" noValueText="[None Specified]" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="ontology" target="rdfs:isDefinedBy" template="[[TV:taxonomyResourceURI]]" format="IRI"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="ontology" target="skos:prefLabel" template="[[TV:name]]" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="ontology" target="skos:altLabel" template="[[TV(|):aliasList]]" multiValueBehavior="splitToMultipleTargets" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="class" target="rdfs:label" template="[[TV:primaryCode]]" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="class" target="skos:definition" template="&lt;![CDATA[Definition: [[TV:definition]]  Description: [[TV:description]]]]&gt;" noValueText="[None Specified]" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="class" target="rdfs:isDefinedBy" template="http://nsgreg.nga.mil/as/view?i=[[TV:mdbPK]]" format="IRI"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="class" target="skos:prefLabel" template="[[TV:name]]" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="class" target="skos:altLabel" template="[[TV(|):aliasList]]" multiValueBehavior="splitToMultipleTargets" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="conceptscheme" target="rdfs:label" template="[[TV:primaryCode]]_ConceptScheme" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="conceptscheme" target="skos:definition" template="&lt;![CDATA[Definition: [[TV:definition]]  Description: [[TV:description]]]]&gt;" noValueText="[None Specified]" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="conceptscheme" target="rdfs:isDefinedBy" template="http://nsgreg.nga.mil/as/view?i=[[TV:mdbPK]]" format="IRI"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="conceptscheme" target="skos:prefLabel" template="[[TV:name]] - Concept Scheme" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="property" target="skos:prefLabel" template="[[TV:name]]" format="langString"/>
 <DescriptorTarget appliesTo="property" target="skos:altLabel" template="[[TV(|):aliasList]]" multiValueBehavior="splitToMultipleTargets" format="langString"/>
</descriptorTargets>

RDF Map Entries

<rdfMapEntries> contain <RdfTypeMapEntry> and <RdfPropertyMapEntry> elements, which map UML types (classes) as well as UML properties (attributes and association roles) to corresponding ontology resources.

RdfTypeMapEntry

If an RdfTypeMapEntry in the ShapeChange configuration provides a mapping for a UML type from the processed schema, then the UML type is not encoded. Instead, whenever the UML type is used in the schema, the target RDFS or OWL class specified by the map entry is used in the RDF implementation.

Information Item (configured via XML attribute) Datatype & Structure Required / Optional Default Value Description

type

String Required not applicable Name of a UML type.

schema

String Optional none The name of the application schema package to which the UML type belongs. Used to avoid ambiguity in case that multiple schemas are being processed.

If no schema is given, the map entry applies to the given type in all schemas.

target

String Required not applicable IRI of the RDFS/OWL class or datatype to which the UML type shall be mapped (e.g. “ex1:A”).

NOTE: The value is expected to be given as a QName, with the namespace prefix matching the namespace abbreviation of a namespace declared in the configuration.

targetType

one of “datatype” and “class” Optional “class” Type of the target (class or datatype) to which the UML type will be mapped.

NOTE: Provision of the “targetType” in an RdfTypeMapEntry is necessary to differentiate if the target is an RDFS class or a datatype. UML properties with the type stated in the map entry as value type can then be encoded accordingly. The default value for “targetType” is “class”.

NOTE: The configuration may contain multiple RdfTypeMapEntry elements (RTME) for a specific type (T), each with a different ‘schema’. The look-up of the RdfTypeMapEntry that applies to T is performed as follows:

  • If one RdfTypeMapEntry from RTME has a schema that matches the schema of T then that map entry is chosen (because it is specific for T).
  • Otherwise, if one RdfTypeMapEntry from RTME does not define any schema, then it is chosen (because it is a generic mapping for T).
  • Otherwise none of the elements in RTME applies to T.

RdfPropertyMapEntry

If an RdfPropertyMapEntry provides a mapping to an RDF/OWL property for a UML property from the processed schema, then the UML property is not encoded. Instead, whenever the UML property is used in the schema, the RDF/OWL property specified by the map entry is used in the RDF implementation. By not providing a target property, an RdfPropertyMapEntry can also be used to fully omit the conversion of a UML property.

Information Item (configured via XML attribute) Datatype & Structure Required / Optional Default Value Description

property

String Required not applicable Name of a UML property, optionally scoped to a class from the application schema (example: FeatureX::propertyY).

schema

String Optional none The name of the application schema package to which the UML property belongs. Used to avoid ambiguity in case that multiple schemas are being processed.

target

String; the value is expected to be given as a QName, with the namespace prefix matching the namespace abbreviation of a namespace declared in the configuration. Required not applicable IRI of the RDF/OWL property to which the UML property shall be mapped (e.g. “ex1:propZ”). Can be omitted or empty if the property shall not be encoded.

range

String; the value is expected to be given as a QName, with the namespace prefix matching the namespace abbreviation of a namespace declared in the configuration. Optional none Range to use in class expressions involving the target (RDF/OWL) property.

NOTE:

  • An RdfPropertyMapEntry is used to describe the mapping of application schema properties to RDF/OWL properties
  • An RdfPropertyMapEntry can be used to define the range of the RDF/OWL property, which may be especially useful when using it to implement a specific UML property.
  • If a UML property P is mapped to an RDF/OWL property from an external ontology EX, then the resulting ontology RES will import EX. The property declaration from EX will then be available and used in RES. RES will not contain an OWL property declaration of P in its own namespace.
  • No ‘targetType’ attribute is defined in the XML Schema of RdfPropertyMapEntry. As in an RdfTypeMapEntry, such an attribute could indicate whether the ‘target’ is an RDF property, an OWL object property, or an OWL datatype property. Currently, this information is not required for the conversion to RDF/OWL/SKOS. This can change in the future.

Example

<rdfMapEntries>        
 <RdfTypeMapEntry type="CadastralZoningLevelValue" target="skos:Concept"/> 
 <RdfPropertyMapEntry property="inspireId"/>
 <RdfPropertyMapEntry property="label" target="rdfs:label"/>
</rdfMapEntries>

RDF Conversion Parameters

<rdfConversionParameters> contain <StereotypeConversionParameter>, <TypeConversionParameter>, and <PropertyConversionParameter> elements, which contain instructions for the conversion of UML types, UML types with specific stereotype, and UML properties.

StereotypeConversionParameter

A StereotypeConversionParameter defines a custom rdfs:subClassOf mapping for all UML types with a well-known stereotype. For example, all feature types can thus be a subClassOf GeoSPARQL “Feature”.

Information Item (configured via XML attribute) Datatype & Structure Required / Optional Default Value Description

wellknown

one of “DataType”, “FeatureType”, “Enumeration”, “CodeList”, “Union”, “Type”, and “BasicType” Required not applicable Stereotype that is well-known to ShapeChange

subClassOf

String; multiple values are separated with spaces; each value is expected to be given as a QName, with the namespace prefix matching the namespace abbreviation of a namespace declared in the configuration. Required not applicable IRIs of classes of which UML types with this stereotype shall be rdfs:subClassOf.

TypeConversionParameter

A TypeConversionParameter defines a custom rdfs:subClassOf mapping for a UML type.

Information Item (configured via XML attribute) Datatype & Structure Required / Optional Default Value Description

type

String Required not applicable Name of a UML type.

schema

String Optional none The name of the application schema package to which the UML type belongs. Used to avoid ambiguity in case that multiple schemas are being processed.
subClassOf String; multiple values are separated with spaces; each value is expected to be given as a QName, with the namespace prefix matching the namespace abbreviation of a namespace declared in the configuration. Required not applicable IRIs of classes of which the UML type shall be rdfs:subClassOf.

PropertyConversionParameter

A PropertyConversionParameter can be used to:

  • Declare that a property shall be encoded with global scope (see rule-owl-prop-globalScopeByConversionParameter).
  • Map a UML property to the RDF/OWL implementation of another UML property.
  • Define a custom rdfs:subPropertyOf mapping for the UML property.
Information Item (configured via XML attribute) Datatype & Structure Required / Optional Default Value Description
property String Required not applicable Name of a UML property, optionally scoped to a class from the application schema (example: FeatureX::propertyY).
schema String Optional none The name of the application schema package to which the UML property belongs. Used to avoid ambiguity in case that multiple schemas are being processed.
global  Boolean  Optional  false  Specifies if the UML property shall be encoded as a global property.
subPropertyOf  String; multiple values are separated with spaces; each value is expected to be given as a QName, with the namespace prefix matching the namespace abbreviation of a namespace declared in the configuration.  Optional  none IRIs of RDF/OWL properties of which the RDF/OWL implementation of the UML property shall be an rdfs:subPropertyOf.
target String Optional not applicable Name of the target UML property, scoped to a class from the application schema (example: FeatureY::propertyZ), whose RDF/OWL implementation will be used to implement this property.
targetSchema  String  Conditional (required if “target” is provided)  none The name of the application schema package to which the target property belongs. Used to avoid ambiguity in case that multiple schemas are being processed.

NOTE:

  • If a UML property is the subject of both a PropertyConversionParameter and an RdfPropertyMapEntry, then the former is ignored and ShapeChange logs a warning.
  • Setting “global” to “true” is only allowed if the “property” identifies the property of a specific UML class from a specific schema. This way, there cannot be ambiguity regarding the semantics of the globally scoped property – it is defined by a single UML property from the model.
  • “global” has no effect if “target” is also present in the same conversion parameter – because then the UML property will be mapped to another UML property that is implemented as a global property.
  • If the PropertyConversionParameter has a “target” (which shall be scoped to a class to avoid ambiguity when a schema is encoded as multiple ontologies) then it must also have a “targetSchema”, to unambiguously identify a global property to which the “property” from the PropertyConversionParameter is mapped.
  • Currently, there is no mechanism to encode a specific UML property as a global RDF/OWL property with a name that is different than the one computed from the name of the UML property.
  • The combination of “global” and “subPropertyOf” is allowed. In that case, a “subPropertyOf” declaration is added to the encoding of the global OWL property.

Example

<rdfConversionParameters>
 <StereotypeConversionParameter wellknown="FeatureType" subClassOf="geo:Feature"/>
 <PropertyConversionParameter property="CadastralParcel::geometry" schema="CadastralParcels" subPropertyOf="locn:geometry geo:hasDefaultGeometry"/>
 <PropertyConversionParameter property="CadastralParcel::referencePoint" schema="CadastralParcels" subPropertyOf="locn:geometry" global="true"/>
 <PropertyConversionParameter property="CadastralZoning::geometry" schema="CadastralParcels" subPropertyOf="locn:geometry geo:hasDefaultGeometry"/>
 <PropertyConversionParameter property="CadastralZoning::referencePoint" schema="CadastralParcels" target="CadastralParcel::referencePoint" targetSchema="CadastralParcels"/>
 <PropertyConversionParameter property="CadastralBoundary::geometry" schema="CadastralParcels" subPropertyOf="locn:geometry geo:hasDefaultGeometry"/>
 <TypeConversionParameter type="Feature1" schema="Schema 1" subClassOf="ex1:C"/>
</rdfConversionParameters>

Constraint Mappings

<constraintMappings> contain <ConstraintMapping> elements, which contain instructions for the conversion of constraints defined on UML types and UML properties.

Information Item (configured via XML attribute) Datatype & Structure Required / Optional Default Value Description
constraintType enum: “Text”, “OCL”, or “FOL” Required not applicable

Identifies the type of constraint for which the mapping is defined.

target String; the syntax shall follow QNames, with the prefix being equal to the namespace abbreviation of a namespace that is contained in the configuration of the ShapeChange ontology target Optional iso19150-2:constraint

IRI of an RDF property or OWL annotation property that will be used to represent the constraint. The subject is the OWL class or property representing the UML class or property on which the constraint is defined (i.e., its context model element). The object is a language tagged string. The string content is determined by the template. The configuration parameter language provides the value of the language tag.

template String Required not applicable

Text template where an occurrence of the field “[[constraint property ID]]” is replaced with the value of that property. The available constraint property IDs as well as additional details are documented in the table below.

noValue String Optional the empty string

If a constraint property used in a template has no value, then this information item provides the text to use instead (e.g., “N/A” or “FIXME”).

multiValue ConnectorToken String Optional a single space character

If a constraint property used in a template has multiple values, they are concatenated to a single string value using this token as connector between two values.

format enum: string, or langString Optional string

Defines the format of the target property value:

  • langString: language tagged string; the configuration parameter language provides the value of the language tag
  • string: string without language tag

NOTE:

  • Only a single mapping is allowed per constraint type.
  • A constraint is mapped using the template that is most specific for the given constraint type. For example, FOL constraints are subtypes of Text constraints. If the configuration contains mappings for both Text and FOL constraints, then the latter is applied for a FOL constraint, but not the former. If the configuration only contained a mapping for Text constraints, then it would be applied for a FOL constraint (because no mapping is provided that is more specific for a FOL constraint).
  • If the ShapeChange configuration does not contain a mapping for a constraint type encountered in the application schema (or one of its supertypes), ShapeChange will report a warning and use the default values for noValue and multiValueConnectorToken, as well as the default template: [[name]]: [[text]]

The following table documents which properties are available for which type of constraint supported by ShapeChange.

Constraint Property ID Single- or multi-valued (S/M) Available in Text Constraint (Y/N) Available in OCL Constraint (Y/N) Available in FOL Constraint (Y/N)

name

S

Y

Y

Y

text

S

Y

Y

Y

status

S

Y

Y

Y

comment

M

N

Y

Y

Example:

<constraintMappings>
 <ConstraintMapping constraintType="Text" target="rdfs:comment" template="[[name]] ([[status]]): [[text]]" noValue="[None Specified]" format="langString"/>
 <ConstraintMapping constraintType="OCL" template="[[name]]: [[comment]] --- OCL expression: [[text]]" format="langString"/>
</constraintMappings>

Namespaces

A <Namespace> element defines a namespace and its properties. A namespace must be declared for each prefix used in RDF map entries and conversion parameters.

Example:

<namespaces>
 <Namespace nsabr="xsd" ns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"/>
 <Namespace nsabr="rdf" ns="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"/>
 <Namespace nsabr="rdfs" ns="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"/>
 <Namespace nsabr="owl" ns="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"/>
 <Namespace nsabr="dcat" ns="http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#" location="https://www.w3.org/ns/dcat.ttl"/>
 <Namespace nsabr="skos" ns="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"
  location="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core"/>
 <Namespace nsabr="geo" ns="http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#"
  location="http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql"/>
 <Namespace nsabr="locn" ns="https://www.w3.org/ns/locn#" location="https://www.w3.org/ns/locn.ttl"/>
</namespaces>

The attributes for <Namespace> are as follows:

Attribute Name Required / Optional Default Value Explanation
ns Required The full namespace of an ontology.
nsabr Required The namespace abbreviation.
location Optional The location of the ontology document.

The file StandardNamespaces-owl.xml contains a series of standard namespace definitions for the derivation of an ontology representation. This file can be included (via XInclude) in configuration files.

Sample Configuration

<TargetOwl class="de.interactive_instruments.ShapeChange.Target.Ontology.OWLISO19150" mode="enabled"
 inputs="TRF">
 <targetParameter name="outputDirectory" value="results/base"/>
 <targetParameter name="defaultEncodingRule" value="ENC_RDF"/>
 <targetParameter name="URIbase" value="http://my.example.org/ont"/>
 <targetParameter name="language" value="en"/>
 <targetParameter name="defaultTypeImplementation" value="owl:Class"/>
 <descriptorTargets>
  <DescriptorTarget target="rdfs:label" template="[[alias]]"/>
  <DescriptorTarget target="rdfs:isDefinedBy" template="[[TV:inspireConcept]]" format="IRI"/>
  <DescriptorTarget target="skos:definition" template="[[definition]]" noValueText="N/A"/>
  <DescriptorTarget target="rdfs:comment" template="[[description]]" noValueText="N/A"/>
 </descriptorTargets>
 <xi:include href="config/StandardNamespaces-owl.xml"/>
 <namespaces>
  <Namespace nsabr="locn" ns="https://www.w3.org/ns/locn#" location="https://www.w3.org/ns/locn.ttl"/>
 </namespaces>
 <xi:include href="config/StandardMapEntries-owl.xml"/>
 <rdfMapEntries>
  <RdfTypeMapEntry type="AddressRepresentation" target="locn:Address"/>
  <RdfTypeMapEntry type="TM_Position" target="xsd:date"/>
  <RdfTypeMapEntry type="ConditionOfFacilityType" target="skos:Concept"/>
  <RdfTypeMapEntry type="VoidValueReason" target="skos:Concept"/>
  <RdfTypeMapEntry type="ApplicationSchemaValue" target="skos:Concept"/>
 </rdfMapEntries>
 <rdfConversionParameters>
  <StereotypeConversionParameter wellknown="FeatureType" subClassOf="geo:Feature"/>
 </rdfConversionParameters>
 <rules>
  <EncodingRule name="ENC_RDF">
   <rule name="rule-owl-pkg-singleOntologyPerSchema"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-pkg-ontologyName-code"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-pkg-versionInfo"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-pkg-versionIRI"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-iso191502IsAbstract"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-generalization"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-encode-featuretypes"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-encode-objecttypes"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-encode-mixintypes"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-encode-datatypes"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-encode-basictypes"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-prop-general"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-prop-range-global"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-prop-globalScopeByConversionParameter"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-prop-mapping-compare-specifications"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-all-constraints-humanReadableTextOnly"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-union"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-unionSets"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-iso191502Enumeration"/>
   <rule name="rule-owl-cls-codelist-external"/>
  </EncodingRule>
 </rules>
</TargetOwl>